The Hebrew Alphabet contains
- א / aleph / אַלֶף
- ב / beith / בֵּית
- ג / guimel / גִּמֶל
- ד / dalet / דָּלֶת
- ה / he / הֵא
- ו / vav / וָו
- ז / zayin / זַיִן
- ח / heith / חֵית
- ט / teith / טֵית
- י / youd / יוּד
- כ / kaf / כָּף
- ל / lamed / לָמֶד
- מ / mem / מֵם
- נ / noun / נוּן
- ס / samekh / סָמֶךְ
- ע / ayin / עַיִן
- פ / péh / פֵּה
- צ / tsadei / צָדֵי
- ק / qof / קוֹף
- ר / reish / רֵישׁ
- ש / shin / שִׁין
- ת / tav / תָּו
Identical Pronunciations of Different Letters
א ≈ ע
The aleph ≈ The ayin
The Aleph א is almost identical to the Ayin ע. They carry the vowel in the same way, with a subtle difference. Indeed, the Aleph has no inherent consonant sound, whereas the Ayin, once guttural, interrupts the sound between the two syllables, as a remembrance of the sound that originated from the throat and was simplified for practical reasons. Apart from this difference, both consonants strongly resemble vowels.
ב = ו
The beith = The vav
The Beith בּ, when becoming Veith ב, becomes identical to וwhen pronounced as a 'V'.
ח = כ
The heith = The kaf
The Heith ח is identical to Kaf כּ when it becomes Khaf כ. They are both pronounced as "KH", similar to the Spanish 'Jota'.
ט = ת
The tav = The teith
The Teith ט is identical to Tav ת. They are pronounced as "T", even though there is a distinction between the two. This distinction has been forgotten by many today.
כּ = ק
The kaf = The qof
The Kaf כּ is identical to Qof ק. They are both pronounced as "K".
שׂ = ס
The sin = The samèkh
The Sin שׂ(with the dot on the left)is identical to the Samekh ס . They are both pronounced as "S".
The 22 Letters of the Hebrew Alphabet
« b » ou « v »
« gu »
« d »
« h » aspiré
« v », « o », « ou »
« z »
« 'h » jota espagnol
« gu »
« i », « y »
« k » ou « kh (jota) »
« l »
« m »
« n »
« s »
« porte la voyelle »
« p » ou « f »
« ts »
« q »
« r »
« sh » ou « s »
« t »
« kh (jota) »
« m »
« n »
« f »
« ts »
Check out the different square Hebrew fonts at a glance.
A selection of calssic fonts for writing in Hebrew
The history of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet
Sefer Yetzirah (ספר יצירה) - Zohar I, 2b-3b
According to the translation by Jean Paul Pauly (1906)
It is written: «In the beginning ». Rabbi Hamenuna the Elder said: We find at the beginning of a Genèse un renversement d’ordre des lettres initiales.
Thus, the first two words of Genèse have the initials of the letter Beith ב :
- « béréshit / בְּרֵאשִׁית / In the beginning »
- « bara / בָּרָא / created »
and the following two words have the initials the letter Alèph א :
- « Élohim, אֱלֹהִים, God », et, « Èt, אֵת, (without translation) ».
Here is the reason for this inversion:
Already, two thousand years before the creation of the world, the letters were hidden, and the Saint, blessed be he, contemplated them and delighted in them. When he wanted to create the world, all the letters, but in reversed order, came to present themselves before him.
It was the letter Tav, ת, תָו that presented itself first. Master of the worlds, she said, may it please you to use me to bring about the creation of the world. whereas I form the final letter of the word "Émèt, אֱמֶת, truth" engraved on your seal; and, as you yourself are called “Émèt, אֱמֶת, truth”, it behooves the King to begin with the final letter of the word “Émèt, אֱמֶת, truth” and to use it to operate the creation of the world.
The Holy One, blessed be he, answered him: "You are, indeed, worthy; but it is not appropriate for me to use you to bring about the creation of the world, because you are destined to be marked on the foreheads of the faithful men who have observed the law from the Aleph to the Tav, and to be thus mingled with death, and also because you form the final letter of the word « Mavèt, Death, מָוֶת » .
For these reasons, it does not suit me to use you to bring about the creation of the world.” The letter Tav came out immediately.
The letter Shin, ש,שִׁין then entered, and after making the same request, she asserted the initial of the divine name Shadai, which is a Shin; it is appropriate, she says, that we use the initial of the sacred name Shadaï, to operate the creation of the world.
God answered him: "Indeed, you are worthy, you are good and you are true. But forgers will use you to affirm their lies, by associating the two letters to you:
Reish, ר,רֵישׁ and Qof, ק,קוֹף
To thus form the word « Shéqer, שֶׁקֶר, Mensonge ».
From these words, it follows that in order to make their lies acceptable, liars are obliged to mix in a principle of truth. That is why the word 'Sheqer, שֶׁקֶר, Lie' is an anagram of the word 'Qesher, קֶשֶׁר, Knot, Bundle', because, to make lies acceptable, the liar is obliged to start with a truth (ש), to which he then adds the lie (ק and ר) in a way to tie these two together.
So, even though you are true, O letter Shin, since the three patriarchs will be united in you, it is not appropriate for me to use you to effect the creation of the world, because you will often be associated with the two letters (ק and ר) that are on the bad side, on the side of the demon." When the letter Shin heard these words, she left.
Seeing this, the letters (ק and ר) did not dare to present themselves.
The letter Tsadei, צ, צָדֵי then came forward and made the same request, claiming that the word « juste, Tsadiqim, צַדִּיקִים »,applied to both humans and God, begins with the letter Tsadei, as it is written: « For the Lord is « juste, tsadei, צָדֵי », and 'He loves « justice, tsedaqoth, צְדָקוֹת ».
God replied to her : "Indeed, you are righteous, O letter Tsadei; but it is not fitting for me to use you to effect the creation of the world, as you must be hidden to avoid giving room for error.
For your original form is a slanted Nun (נ), a feminine principle, upon which a Yod (י), a masculine principle, is added.
And such is the mystery of the creation of the first man, who was created with a double face, two figures turned in opposite directions, back to back; and that's why the Yod is presented from the back, not from the front, whether it looks upward or downward.
You too," said God to Tsadei (צ), "will one day be divided in two, but you will go elsewhere." The letter Tsadei left and went away."
The letter Péh, פ, פֵּה, then entered and made the same request, pointing out that the word « Pedouth,פְּדוּת , Délivrance » (which God must bring about someday in the world), starts with a P.
God replied to her: "You are indeed deserving; however, the word « Pésha, פֶּשַׁע, Péché » also begins with a P.
Moreover, you have a lowered head (פ), a symbol of the sinner who, ashamed, lowers their head and extends their arms.
* Pédout, פְדֻת, délivrance Exode 8:19
Pédout, פְּדוּת, séparation Psaume 111:9
פֶשַׂע, péssa, un pas (il n'y a qu'un pas entre moi et la mort), Samuel 1, 20:3
אֶפְשְׂעָה, épsah , fouler : en combattant, je marcherai (foulerai)" Isaïe 27:4
The letter Pei left and went away.
To the letter Ayin, ע, עַיִן, God replied that it starts the word « Avon, עָוֹן, Crime » ;although she pointed out that she also starts the word « Anava, עֲנָוָה, Modestie » , the Holy One, blessed be He, said to her : "I will not use you to effect the creation of the world".
* עָוֹן , avon, iniquité chatiment, crime, péché
** עֲנָוָה, anava, modestie, humilité, bonté, douceur, Proverbes 18:12
When she left, the letter Samèkh, ס, שַמֶךְ, entered and made the same request as the previous letters, claiming that the verse 'The Lord upholds all who are falling' starts with a word whose initial is a « Samekh, שַמֶךְ, Soutien »*.
God replied to her: 'It is precisely because of your purpose that you must remain in your place; for if I were to remove you from your place to use you to effect the creation of the world, what would happen to those who are about to fall, as they rely on you?"
The letter immediately left.
To the letter Noun, נ, נוּן, which pointed out that the words « Nora*, נוּרָא, Craint »,and « Nava**, נָאוֶה, Beau» commencent par cette lettre, Dieu répondit : "start with this letter, God replied: 'Return to your place, for because of you, the Samekh (ס) returned to its place and leans on it, (since Nun is the initial of « Nophelim***, נוֹפֵלִם, those who stagger (fall)» ״ . Shaking, returning to its place, it left.
* נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא , Daniel, 3:6 , feu ardent
The root of Noura, נוּרָא, is : נוּר, Nour, which in Arabic : نور, Nour,means light. Nour is אוֹר, Or, light in Hebrew with an added "N".
** נָאוֶה, navéh, ou, נָאוָה, Navah, voir sur wiki
הַנְּפִלִים, les néphilim, géant ? - Génèse 6:4
The letter Mèm, מ, מֵםְ, pointed out that it is the initial of the word : Mélekh, מֶלֶך, Roi.
That's true,' God replied, 'but I will not use you to effect the creation of the world, since the world needs a King; therefore, stay in your place with the other letters forming the word « Mélekh »,
that is, with the letter Lamèd, ל, לָמֶד, and
with the letter Kaph, כ, כָּף, because it is not fitting for the world to remain without a King.
At that moment, the letter Kaph, deeply moved, descended from the glorious throne and exclaimed, 'Master of the Universe, please use me to effect the creation of the world, as I am the initial of the word that expresses your« gloire, kavod, כבוד ».
When the letter Kaf left its throne, two hundred thousand worlds, as well as the throne itself, trembled; the shock was so intense that it threatened to collapse all the worlds. The Holy One, blessed be He, then said to this letter: 'O Kaph, Kaph, why do you persist in staying here?
Return to your place, for I will not use you to effect the creation of the world, because you are the initial of the word expressing « extermination, kala = כָלָה »*. So, return to your throne and stay there.
Immediately, the letter left and returned to its place.
The letter Youd, י, יוּד,then entered and made the same request, pointing out that it forms the initial of the sacred name « יהוה ».God replied to her: 'It is enough for you to be engraved and marked within myself, and to be the starting point of all my will; it is not fitting to remove you from my name'.
The letter Teith, ט, טֵית, entered in turn and presented the same request as the preceding letters, emphasizing that it is the initial of the word « Tov, טוב , Bon », which is one of God's attributes, known as 'the Good and the Just'
God replied to her: 'You will not be used in the creation of the world; firstly, because the good you represent is enclosed and hidden within you, as it is written: "Oh, how great is Your goodness, which You have laid up for those who fear You"; therefore, the good is reserved for the future world; thus, you have no connection with the world I am creating now".
The letter 'Heith, ח, חֵית, with which you form the word denoting sin : Heth, חטא." For this reason, the two letters (ח and ט) will not be found in any of the names of the twelve holy tribes. The letter Chet immediately left.
Then the letter Zayin, ז, זַיִן,entered and presented the same request as the preceding letters, pointing out that it is the initial of the word that begins the verse concerning the commandment of the Sabbath rest, as it is written : "Remember to keep the Shabbat day holy."
God replied to her: 'I will not use you to effect the creation of the world, because you symbolize war, having the form of a sharp sword and a warrior's dagger, similar to the shape of the final letter Nun, ן.' The letter Zayin immediately left..
The letter Vav, ו, וָו, entered and presented the same request as the preceding letters, emphasizing that it is part of the sacred name (יהוה). "It is sufficient for you to be part of my name,' God replied.
The letter Hé, ה, הֵא,for you to be part of my name, to constitute the mystery contained in my name, and to be engraved and marked within my name. Therefore, I will not use you to effect the creation of the world".
The letters Dalèt,ד, דַלֶת,
and Guimel, ג, גִמֶל, then entered and presented their request in turn, similar to the preceding letters.
God said to them: 'It is sufficient for you as well to remain together side by side, for there will always be poor people in the world to whom aid must be given. Now, Dalèt « Dalout, דַלוּת, Pauvreté » refers to the poor, and Guimel « Guémilot*, גְּמִילוּת, charité, bonnes oeuvres »refers to the benefactor who assists the former.
* גְּמִילוּת, Gamilout, practice, ritual, exercise
גְּמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, 'Hassédim guémilout, the practice of performing good deeds..
חֲסָדִים 'Hassédim, is the plural of Chesed, חֶסֶד, 'Héssèd
חֶסֶד, 'Héssèd, piety, grace, mercy, charity, kindness, almsgiving,
Thus, 'Hassadim' refers to pious and charitable individuals..
The letterBeith, ב , בֵּית, then entered and said: Master of the Universe, please use me to bring about the creation of the world, for I am the initial of the word used to bless you « Baroukh, בָרוּךְ, Béni soit »both above and below.
The Holy One, blessed be He, replied: Indeed, I will use you to bring about the creation of the world, and thus you will be the foundation of the work of creation.
(Thus, the first two words of Genesis begin with a Beith « Béréshit, בְּרֵאשִׁית » and « Bara, בָּרָא ».)
The letter Aleph, א, אַלֶף, remained in its place, without presenting itself. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to it: 'Aleph, Aleph, why did you not present yourself before Me like all the other letters?"
It replied: 'Master of the Universe, seeing all the letters presenting themselves before You in vain, why should I have presented myself? Furthermore, as I saw that You have already bestowed this precious gift upon the letter Bet, I understood that it is not fitting for the celestial King to retract a gift He has given to one of His servants and give it to another.'
The Holy One, blessed be He, replied: 'O Aleph, Aleph, although I will use the letter Bet to bring about the creation of the world, you will have compensations, for you will be the first of all the letters, and I will have unity only in you ; You will be the foundation of all calculations and acts in the world, and unity will not be found anywhere except in the letter Aleph! ».
From the above, it follows that the Holy One, blessed be He, created the forms of the great celestial letters that correspond to the small letters here below. Therefore, the first two words of Scripture have as their initials two 'Bet, Bereishit, Bara,' and the next two words have two 'Aleph, Elohim, Et,' in order to indicate the celestial letters and those of this lower world, which are actually the same letters, through which everything operates in the celestial world and the world below.
The Hebrew Alphabet and Astrology
According to certain esoteric beliefs, the letters of the Hebrew Alphabet are believed to be associated with the 12 zodiac signs and the planets.
Thus, the symbols related to the letters and the zodiac are believed to have given rise to the 22 Major Arcana cards of the Tarot deck. Tarot could be considered a form of palindrome of Torah.
Torah - Tarot
TAROT - TORAT